School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


David Holder

Primary Subject Area

Education, General; Education, Tests and Measurements; Education, Higher


ACT, College Entrance Exams, SAT, Shadow Education


Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods


This study surveyed college freshman to determine which types of preparation if any they had before taking either the SAT and/or ACT to decide if a certain type of preparation increased their scores. Students indicated whether they used online resources, self-help resources, school workshops and/or private tutoring before taking either test. The ACT scores were converted to SAT scores so that the data would be uniform. The mean SAT score was computed for those who used preparation and those who did not and comparisons were made. Each individual type of preparation was compared to no preparation. Finally, a correlation was computed between SAT scores and high school grade point averages. The research did not show that students who used preparation performed better than those who did not.