School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Deanna Keith

Primary Subject Area

Health Sciences, Hygiene; Health Sciences, Education; Education, General; Education, Health; Education, Special


Disabilities, Functional Skills, literacy


Disability and Equity in Education | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Medicine and Health Sciences


This study used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of Functional Story-Based Instruction about hand washing on the independent and correct emergent literacy responses and independent and correct hand washing responses of three elementary students with significant intellectual disabilities in small inclusive reading groups. Data were collected during baseline, intervention, and generalization phases, and then analyzed using visual analyses. The result of the study indicated a functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Social validity indicated Functional Story-Based Instruction about hand washing was an effective approach for teaching both emergent literacy skills and hand washing skills to students with significant intellectual disabilities. Limitations, suggestions for future research, and implications for practice are provided.