School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Leonard W Parker

Primary Subject Area

Education, Administration; Education, Secondary


African American Achievement Gaps, Culturally Responsive Teaching, Engaged Time, Minority Achievement, START on Time


This causal-comparative study examined whether or not a relationship exists between the Safe Transition and Reduced Tardies (START on Time) program and the academic performance of African American students. Specifically, this study compared the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) cumulative scores in each of the four core subject areas (English/language arts, math, science, and social studies) of the START on Time program target group with the control group. Using a comparison of these cumulative scores, the results indicate a significant increase in the TAKS scores of African American students in each of the four core subject areas. The significance of the study demonstrates that achievement for African American students can be increased by reducing tardies and increasing time on task. Furthermore, the study highlights the need for stakeholders to actively engage school reform as a means to improve the academic performance of traditionally underrepresented groups.