School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Steven A. McDonald, David E. Holder


Articulatory Phonics, Emergent :iterate Students, Linguistics, Literacy, Phonology


Curriculum and Instruction | Curriculum and Social Inquiry | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods


The purpose of this research study is to determine if teachers of emergent literate students have been trained in linguistics—the anatomy, air flow, and voice of phonology—as part of their literacy instruction and to what extent those strategies are employed while teaching. The basis for this inquiry lies in the understanding that phonology is a science conceived from linguistics which illustrates and explains how sounds are created and produced within the oral structure. This body of information lends itself to an extremely developmental and authentic scope and sequence for teaching phonetics to students. These teachers must be aware of and utilize the similarities and differences between specific phonemes, so as to demonstrate and teach emergent literate students. Sixty-three teachers of emergent literate students in the fields of early childhood education, elementary education, special education, speech-language pathology, as well as reading specialists, participated in the study. A questionnaire was employed which included questions that quantify the teachers’ knowledge and usage of linguistics in phonological lesson planning and instruction, including a portion of the International Phonetic Alphabet Chart. The results of the questionnaires were analyzed for percentages, means, and ranges. The analysis illustrated that teachers of emergent literate students have received very little information and training regarding the components of linguistics and rarely use its strategies in phonologic lessons. Further study could be employed that measures the impact of including this content into phonologic lessons.